Climate Change ☀️
Study first to explore combined impacts of fishing and ocean warming on fish populations
The combined effect of rapid ocean warming and the practice of targeting big fish is affecting the viability of wild populations and global fish stock says new research.

Unlike earlier studies that traditionally considered fishing and climate in isolation, the research found that ocean warming and fishing combined to impact on fish recruitment, and that this took four generations to manifest.
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Marine biodiversity: Enormous variety of animal life in the deep sea revealed
New research method combines different types of data, revealing that the deep-sea basins in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans have unique species communities that are threatened by economic exploitation.

The deep-sea floor at water depths of more than 1000 metres covers more than 60 per cent of the Earth's surface, making it the largest part of the biosphere. Yet little is known about the diversity, distribution patterns, and functional importance of organisms in this extreme and gigantic habitat. What is certain is that climate change -- e.g. through warming, acidification, or oxygen depletion -- is already having an impact on this sensitive ecosystem. In addition, the deep sea is under pressure from the growing interest in raw material extraction.
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Arctic stew: Understanding how high-latitude lakes respond to and affect climate change
To arrive at Nunavut, turn left at the Dakotas and head north. You can't miss it -- the vast tundra territory covers almost a million square miles of northern Canada. Relatively few people call this lake-scattered landscape home, but the region plays a crucial role in understanding global climate change.

This was odd. The expected pattern is that warmer temperatures should trigger larger releases of greenhouse gases from lakes. In places like Alaska, centuries of accumulated plant material in the permafrost release a hoard of carbon as they thaw, and are consumed by microbes. Experiments have also shown that as waters warm, carbon dioxide production by microbes increases more quickly than carbon dioxide uptake by plants, throwing the system out of balance. Together, these processes should increase atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions from waterways, in theory anyway. So why not in Nunavut? There is no question that the first step in this Rube Goldberg machine is engaged ... the climate is warming. Why then, are the lakes near Rankin Inlet not belching out carbon?

Does this mean that nature has come to the climate rescue? Likely not -- other lakes around the world may still increase carbon dioxide emissions with warming, and the lakes in Nunavut might eventually catch up with them too. More likely, Brothers suggests that the link between ice cover duration and carbon dioxide concentrations might be buying us some time, before stronger positive feedbacks are unleashed between the planet's warming and its ecosystems. It may be a complicated process, but understanding this complexity helps scientists predict variations in how lakes are responding to -- and influencing -- climate change. It's a view under the hood, making planetary feedbacks and tipping points a little more predictable. While the long-term trajectory of greenhouse gas emissions from lakes is not settled, these results are an important piece of the puzzle in climate change science.
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Epicurious Ditches Beef In A Move It Calls 'Pro-Planet'
Digital food magazine Epicurious will no longer publish recipes featuring beef, in what it says is an effort to help home cooks become more environmentally friendly.

The CondΓ© Nast-owned publication announced the change in an article published Monday, but revealed that it "actually pulled the plug on beef well over a year ago." Senior editor Maggie Hoffman and former digital director David Tamarkin explained that because of cattle's carbon footprint, cutting out — or even cutting down on — beef makes space for more climate-conscious recipes.

"We know that some people might assume that this decision signals some sort of vendetta against cows — or the people who eat them. But this decision was not made because we hate hamburgers (we don't!)," they wrote. "Instead, our shift is solely about sustainability, about not giving airtime to one of the world's worst climate offenders. We think of this decision as not anti-beef but rather pro-planet."

Going forward, the magazine will not feature beef in new recipes, articles, newsletters or social media content, though its previously published beef content will remain online and in archive-based recipe galleries.

It actually enacted this policy in the fall of 2019 and has published beef recipes only a "small handful of times" since then, as explained in an FAQ. Focusing on vegetarian alternatives for summer cookouts, for example, it has offered creative takes on meatless meat and grilled vegetables instead. Hoffman and Tamarkin said that readers had "rallied around the recipes we published in beef's place."

"The traffic and engagement numbers on these stories don't lie," they wrote. "When given an alternative to beef, American cooks get hungry."

So why beef, and why now? The editors outlined a number of their considerations, which all point to fighting climate change.

The single step of cutting out beef constitutes a big leap towards becoming more environmentally friendly, they explained. Citing an expert with the Natural Resources Defense Council, a nonprofit environmental advocacy group, they said cattle contribute to climate change in multiple ways.

Those include the considerable quantity of corn and soybeans that is grown using pesticides and fertilizer to feed cattle; the amount of climate-polluting methane that cows release into the atmosphere; high rates of deforestation to make space for cows and the amount of water that is alternately needed to raise cattle and polluted as a result of runoff from their manure.

The editors noted that scaling back on beef is not in itself "a silver bullet," as most animals — and even dairy products — have their own environmental costs. But the cost of beef is especially high, they said.

Nearly 15 percent of greenhouse gas emissions globally come from livestock, with the vast majority of those traced back to beef specifically, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Cows are 20 times less efficient to raise than beans, and roughly three times less efficient than poultry and pork.
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Climate change, periodic modification of Earth’s climate brought about as a result of changes in the atmosphere as well as interactions between the atmosphere and various other geologic, chemical, biological, and geographic factors within the Earth system.

Source: Climate change - Evidence for climate change | Britannica
Climate Change is the defining issue of our time and we are at a defining moment. From shifting weather patterns that threaten food production, to rising sea levels that increase the risk of catastrophic flooding, the impacts of climate change are global in scope and unprecedented in scale. Without drastic action today, adapting to these impacts in the future will be more difficult and costly.

Source: Climate Change | United Nations